sudo echo >> /etc/hosts
`sudo echo` does not give you root write access to files. How do you echo into files as root?
Echo is a valid command stored in /bin:
$ which echo /bin/echo
It is also a built-in function that ships with bash.
However, trying to echo into a file can be counterintuitive.
$ sudo echo '127.0.0.1 hostname.local' >> /etc/hosts bash: /etc/hosts: Permission denied
The reason for this is the file handler for /etc/hosts is not using the sudo permissions. The
sudo echo in this example will execute with root permissions, but writing to the file executes under your own user. Using
sudo tee you can get around that:
$ echo '127.0.0.1 hostname.local' | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts 127.0.0.1 hostname.local
As you can see we've moved the
sudo to the right-hand side of the pipe. This allows us to append (using the
-a flag) to /etc/hosts as needed.